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The human proteome contains a much greater variety of proteins than would be predicted from the human genome
Update time:2019-01-13 18:34:39   【 Font: Large  Medium Small

    Transcriptional processing and RNA editing have important consequences for the eukaryotic proteome (the complete set of proteins expressed during an organism's lifetime). The best current estimate is that the human genome contains approximately 35, 000 transcription units that code for proteins. Alternative splicing, which affects at least 42% of the pre-mRNAs, probably results in the production of a few hundred thousand different kinds of proteins in the human proteome. RNA editing, alternative transcription initiation sites and alternative transcription termination sites also contribute to protein diversity. Furthermore, many proteins are modified after they are formed to produce additional variants. The most common types of posttranslational modifications are cleavage, phosphorylation, acetylation, glycosylation, and methylation. Thus, knowing a transcription unit's DNA sequence is a starting point for understanding how information is transferred from DNA to protein but it is not sufficient by itself to tell us the exact nature of the proteins that are present in a given cell at some specific time. As we see in the final section of this chapter, the situation is even more complex because even synthesis of mRNA does not guarantee that it will be translated.

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