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Topiramate mitigates 3-nitropropionic acid-induced striatal neurotoxicity via modulation of AMPA receptors

Posted by H N. Shalaby, D M. EI-Tanbouly, H F. Zaki. on 2018-05-24 18:53:06

Abstract

Prevalence of glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2)-lacking alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors is a hallmark of excitotoxicity-related neurodegenerative diseases. Topiramate (TPM) is a structurally novel anticonvulsant with a well-known modulatory effects on AMPA/kainate subtypes of glutamate receptors. The present study aimed at investigating the neuroprotective potential of TPM on 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced striatal neurodegeneration and Huntington disease-like symptoms. Rats were injected with 3-NP (10?mg/kg/i.p.) for 14 days. TPM (50?mg/kg/p.o.) was given once a day, 1?h before 3-NP. TPM amended 3-NP induced changes in neurobehavioral performance, striatal neurotransmitters levels and histopathological injury. 3-NP control rats showed a significant ablation in the mRNA expression of Ca2+-impermeable Glu2R subunit along with an elevation in its regulatory protein (protein interacting with C kinase-1) PICK1, an effect that was largely reversed by TPM. TPM in addition, enhanced the phosphorylation of the protein kinase B/glycogen synthase kinase-3beta/cAMP response element binding protein (Akt/GSK-3beta/CREB) cue. Moreover, improvement in oxidative status, suppression of caspase-3 activity and restoration of striatal BDNF were noticed following treatment with TPM. The current study revealed that TPM boosted the neuroprotective (Akt/GSK-3beta/CREB) pathway by its negative modulatory effect on AMPA glutamate receptors as well as its direct antioxidant property.

Abstract

Excessive nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) activation mediated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) plays a critical role in inflammation. Here we demonstrate that angiopoietin-like 8 (ANGPTL8) functions as a negative feedback regulator in TNF alpha-triggered NF-kB activation intracellularly. Inflammatory stimuli induce ANGPTL8 expression, and knockdown or knockout of ANGPTL8 potentiates TNF alpha-induced NF-kB activation in vitro. Mechanistically, upon TNF alpha stimulation, ANGPTL8 facilitates the interaction of IKK gamma with p62 via forming a complex, thus promoting the selective autophagic degradation of IKK gamma. Furthermore, the N-terminal domain mediated self-oligomerization of ANGPTL8 is essential for IKK gamma degradation and NF-kB activation. In vivo, circulating ANGPTL8 level is high in patients diagnosed with infectious diseases, and the ANGPTL8/p62-IKK gamma axis is responsive to inflammatory stimuli in the liver of LPS-injected mice. Altogether, our study suggests the ANGPTL8/p62-IKK gamma axis as a negative feedback loop that regulates NF-kB activation, and extends the role of selective autophagy in fine-tuned inflammatory responses.

Abstract

Cisplatin is a potent widely-used chemotherapeutics; however, its clinical use is associated with nephrotoxicity. Renoprotective approaches are being discovered to halt the tubular cell death due to inflammatory and apoptotic burdens. In the present study, the renoprotective effects of different doses of biochanin A (10, 20 or 40?mg/kg) in mice treated with a single injection of cisplatin (10?mg/kg) were reported. Cisplatin administration resulted in marked increases in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Further, renal homogenates showed increased level of inflammatory cytokines and upregulation of the expression of p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), p53 and caspase 3 but downregulation in Nrf2 expression. Furthermore, cisplatin group showed marked necrosis and degenerated tubular lining epithelial cells with frequently detected apoptotic bodies. Mice treated with biochanin A (10, 20 or 40?mg/kg) for 14?days prior to cisplatin abrogated cisplatin-mediated damage. Furthermore, the elevated serum creatinine and urea levels were lessened by some doses of biochanin A, indicating protection against renal injury. Similarly, the changes in apoptosis and inflammatory markers have ameliorated to significant levels (P?<?0.05). The results suggest biochanin A as a nephroprotective agent against cisplatin toxicity. Overall, this nephroprotective effect of biochanin A involved anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic activities.

Keywords

Acute kidney injury; Biochanin A; Cisplatin; Inflammation; p53 apoptosis; PUMA

Abstract

Midbrain dopamine neuronal loss and neuroinflammation are two phenomena that are associated with brain senescence. Neurotrophic factor changes and oxidative stress could subserve these phenomena. Aging-related brain changes can be well monitored through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The objective was to analyze neurotrophic and oxidative parameters that could be related to midbrain dopamine neuronal loss or brain inflammation in the CSF of elderly subjects: 1) levels of the dopaminotrophic factors BDNF, GDNF, persephin, and neurturin, 2) levels of the proinflammatory factors TGF beta1 and TGF beta2; 3) activity of main antioxidant enzymes (catalases, glutathione-peroxidase, glutathione-reductase, glutathione-S-transferases, peroxirredoxins, and superoxide-dismutases), 4) ferritin content, antioxidant protein which reduces reactive free iron, and 5) antioxidant potential of the cerebrospinal fluid. ELISA and PAO tests were used. Subjects were also evaluated clinically, and the group of old subjects with mild cognitive impairment was studied separately. The findings indicate that normal elderly CSF is devoid of changes in either dopaminotrophic or proinflammatory factors. The antioxidant efficacy is slightly reduced with normal aging, through a reduction of glutathione-S-transferase activity in people older than 74?years (p?

Abstract

The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of cranberry extract (CRAN) and/or losartan (LOS) against aluminium chloride (AlCl3) induced hepatorenal damage associated cardiomyopathy in rats. To induce hepatorenal and cardiotoxicity, animals were received (AlCl3; 70 mg/kg i.p.) for 8 weeks day after day and treated with CRAN (100 mg/kg b.wt.) orally daily for 4 weeks started after 4 weeks from AlCl3 injection accompanied with an administration of LOS (5 mg/kg i.p.) three times weekly for 4 weeks. Our data revealed that, compared to AlCl3, administration of CRAN extract and LOS produced a significant improvement which was evidenced by a significant amelioration in myocardial and vascular indices, kidney and liver markers, lipid profile and oxidative stress indices. Furthermore, histopathological and immunohistochemical examination reinforced the previous results. It could be concluded that combination of CRAN extract and LOS hindered AlCl3 induced hepatorenal damage complicated cardiomyopathy in rats.

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