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The method of photodynamic acidification cancer therapy

Posted by star on 2019-04-29 01:31:49
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Researchers from the United States pioneered a new method called photodynamic cancer therapy, which uses specific light waves to illuminate tumors and actives the photoactive drug in the tumor, and then the tumor is destroyed by a luminescent chemical reaction.
A chemical compound (nitrobenzaldehyde) was injected into the tumor and the chemical spreads into the tissue, then aimed a beam of light at the tissue. The light caused the inside of the cell to become very acidic, causing the cell to commit suicide. Within two hours, the researcher estimated that up to 95% of targeted cancer cells have died.
The researcher said: "Although there are many different types of cancer, they all have one thing in common: they are very sensitive to this induced cell suicide." The method was tested in triple-negative breast cancer, which is the most invasive and intractable cancer that is most difficult to treat. After one time of treatment in the laboratory, the tumor stopped growth and the survival rate of the mouse was double.
In the past two years, the researchers have developed photodynamic cancer therapies which have reached a non-invasive level. Now we only need to inject nitrobenzaldehyde liquid, and then irradiate ultraviolet light to cause anti-cancer reaction. The researcher also began to develop a nanoparticle that can be injected into the body to target cancer cells. By activating the nanoparticle with a wavelength of light, it can penetrate the skin, muscles and bones harmlessly and still activate the anti-cancer nanoparticle.
The researcher hopes that his non-invasive approach will help doctors to identify uncertain tumors in certain areas, such as the brain stem, aorta or spine. It can also help patients who have already received the maximum amount of radiation – these people are no longer able to cope with the scars and pains caused by chemotherapy, or children with cancer.



Human cells reprogrammed to create insulin

Posted by star on 2019-04-27 19:26:28
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    When blood sugar levels rise after eating, cells in the pancreas called β-cells normally respond by releasing insulin, which in turn stimulates cells to start absorbing sugars. In people with diabetes, this system breaks down, leading to high blood sugar levels that can damage the body and causes illness.
    In type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks and destroys β-cells; in type 2, the β-cells do not produce enough insulin, or the body becomes resistant to insulin.
    Scientists have previously shown in mouse studies that if β-cells are destroyed, another type of pancreatic cell, called α-cells become more β-like and start making insulin. These α-cells normally produce the hormone glucagon, and are found alongside β-cells in clumps of hormone-secreting cells called pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans. Previous studies showed that two proteins that control gene expression seemed to have an important role in coaxing α-cells to produce insulin in mice: Pdx1 and MafA.
    Researchers at the University of Geneva first took islet cells from human pancreases, and separated out the individual cell types. They then introduced DNA that encoded Pdx1 and MafA proteins into the α-cells, before clumping them back together.
    After one week in culture, almost 40% of the human α-cells were producing insulin, whereas control cells that hadn’t been reprogrammed were not. The reprogrammed cells also showed an increase in the expression of other genes related to β-cells. “They have a hybrid personality” said the researcher.
    The team then implanted the mass of cells into diabetic mice, which had their β-cells destroyed, and found that blood-sugar levels went down to normal levels. When the cell grafts were removed, the mice’s blood sugar shot back up.
......

Scientists discovered the "anti-fat" gene

Posted by star on 2019-04-25 19:46:41
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Scientists at the University of Cambridge have discovered MC4R variants that prevent 4 million people from getting fat in the UK. The team analyzed the genetic maps of more than 500,000 volunteers in the UK biomedical library.On April 18,2019, the study“Human Gain-of-Function MC4R Variants Show Signaling Bias and Protect against Obesity” was published in cell.

They found that about 6% of British people of European descent had a genetic variant that caused the receptor to remain "on". People with these specific genetic variants weigh an average of 2.5 kilograms less than those without these genetic variants, and their risk of developing type 2 diabetes and heart disease is 50% lower. This means that no matter what lifestyle they have,they are more likely to not gain weight. This MC4R controls the melanocortin receptor 4 in the brain and thus regulates appetite.

The study found the genetic factors that prevent people from overeating, so it is now possible to develop drugs that keep the body slim.

Wuhan EIAab Science Co., Ltd has developed MC4R protein,antibody and ELISA kit.
Welcome scientific research workers to choose and purchase.



Observing Cells under Optical Microscope

Posted by star on 2019-04-25 01:21:13
Hits:22

1.1 Objectives.
1. Familiarize with the structure and function of each part of the microscope.
2. Familiarize with basic method for the usage of microscope.
3. Find out cells under the microscope.
4. Observe various cell morphologies.
5. Present the observations with correct biological diagram techniques.
1.2 Introductions
Observation of the cell morphology and cell type is basic knowledge. Cell morphology generally is one of principles for cell classification. Basically there are two kinds of cells, prokaryotic cell such as bacteria and eukaryotic cell including plant and animal cells.
Knowing cell morphology and cell type is helpful to understand the disease development. The changes of cellular morphology such as granularity around the nucleus, detachment of the cells from the substrate, and cytoplasmic vacuolation are following with pathological process.
Fibroblast cells can be bipolar or multi -polar and have elongated shapes.
Epithelial cells are polygonal in shape with more regular dimensions. They tend to grow in discrete patches within a substrate.
Lymphoblast cells are spherical in shape and usually grown in suspension without attaching to the surfaces.
Neuronal cells are further divided into two general morphologies, namely type 1 which have long axons and types which have no axons.
In addition, observation of pathogens such as bacteria and viruses is also important. The bacteria cells are prokaryotic with no nucleus enveloped by nuclear membrane compared to eukaryote. Definition of cell types is a vital diagnostic tool as well as evaluation of treatment plan for diseases.
1.3 Principles
A simple microscope of a lens or set of lenses including objective and ocular lens to amplify a specimen. Lens with different magnification factors are used to obtain different amplification times. Commonly, microscope viewing range is from 10-9 to 10-3 m.
Here we mainly introduce a compound......

How to determine the best treatment for breast cancer?

Posted by star on 2019-04-24 18:45:24
Hits:16

New Zealand has one of the highest rates of breast cancer in the world, with one in 10 women suffering from the disease, accounting for nearly half of all cancer cases in women, according to the latest global cancer epidemiology statistics. About 2.1 million women worldwide develop breast cancer each year, and 600,000 die of the disease despite good treatments.
In all breast cancer patients, there are more than 75% of patients are oestrogen-dependent patients, endocrine therapy is currently the most effective treatment for this type of breast cancer, but a large proportion of patients will have disease recurrence, and in endocrine therapy, the body of the tumor will often develop drug resistance.
In a new study, researchers have developed a new breast cancer test that can help patients and clinicians make better treatment decisions by helping them predict their response to endocrine therapy and their risk of disease recurrence.
Breast cancer is not a single disease, which is a kind of complex diseases, each tumor response to therapy is not the same, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer is a kind of breast cancer subtypes, and as such the body often present in patients with estrogen receptors, it is showed that the cancer cells can like normal breast cells, receiving signals from estrogen and promote the growth of cancer cells; Currently, clinicians rely on the number of estrogen receptors in tumors as biomarkers to predict patients' response to endocrine therapy, but unfortunately, the accuracy of this test is not satisfactory, because estrogen-dependent tumors produce drug resistance.

The response of patients to endocrine therapy is only 30%-40%, up to 40%-50% of patients will not benefit from endocrine therapy, and the disease will recur. There is no known way to predict......

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