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Levels of syndecan-1 and hyaluronan in early- and late-onset preeclampsia

Posted by J Kornacki, P Wirstlein, E Wender-Ozegowska. on 2019-10-28 20:01:00

Abstract

Objective
The study aimed to assess serum levels of syndecan-1 (SDC-1) and hyaluronan (HA) in patients with early- and late-onset preeclampsia (PE).

Study design
Blood samples were collected in the third trimester of pregnancy from 20 women with early-onset PE, 20 with late-onset PE, and 20 with normal pregnancy for the assessment of serum levels of SDC-1 and HA as markers of endothelial injury. PE was categorized as early-onset when diagnosed at <34?weeks of gestation and as late-onset when diagnosed at ≥34?weeks of gestation.

Main outcome measures
The degree of endothelial injury in different forms of preeclampsia expressed by serum concentrations of SDC-1 and HA.

Results
Concentration of HA was significantly higher and the level of SDC-1 was significantly lower in patients with PE than in the control group. However, the concentrations of both HA and SDC-1 did not differ significantly between the two groups of PE.

Conclusions
Degree of endothelium injury is comparable in patients with early- and late-onset PE.

Abstract

Trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) has been a mainstream treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), accordingly there are more requirements for embolic agents’ properties, mainly concentrated on biodegradability and imaging function. A new kind of biodegradable multifunctional porous microspheres (BMPMs) with internal coarse plications are ingeniously designed and manufactured, consisting of carrageenan, inhexol and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPIO). BMPMs’ sound roundness and excellent swelling behavior guarantee them to be smoothly transported into appointed arteries’ ends and achieve satisfactory embolization effect. Porous structure together with sulphate groups on BMPMs’ skeleton weaved by cross-linked carrageenan contributes to a marvelous doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox) loading capacity over 45 mg Dox per mL of swollen microspheres, as well as a controllable degradation rate by allowing enzymes to infiltrate into BMPMs through holes, degrading 20∼35% after two months in vitro. Inner coarse plications enable BMPMs to effectively combine with iohexol via hydrophilic effect and SPIO by blocking, which can further exhibit a decent imaging performance under digital subtraction system (DSA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for optimization of current TACE and development of a more advanced imageable TACE (iTACE). Safety evaluation and animal experiment manifest that BMPMs are reliable enough and hold great potential and competitiveness of being used in curing HCC.

Abstract

Vasopressin and apelin are reciprocally regulated hormones which are implicated in the pathophysiology of heart failure and the regulation of metabolism; however, little is known about their interactions under pathological conditions. In this study, we determined how post-infarct heart failure (HF) and a high fat diet (HFD) affect expression of the apelin APJ receptor (APJR) and the V1a (V1aR) and V1b (V1bR) vasopressin receptors in the hypothalamus, the heart, and the retroperitoneal adipose tissue. We performed experiments in male 4-week-old Sprague Dawley rats. The animals received either a normal fat diet (NFD) or a HFD for 8?weeks, then they underwent left coronary artery ligation to induce HF or sham surgery (SO), followed by 4?weeks of NFD or HFD. The HF rats showed higher plasma concentration of NT-proBNP and copeptin. The HF reduced the APJR mRNA expression in the hypothalamus. The APJR and V1aR protein levels in the hypothalamus were regulated both by HF and HFD, while the V1bR protein level in the hypothalamus was mainly influenced by HF. APJR mRNA expression in the heart was significantly higher in rats on HFD, and HFD affected the reduction of the APJR protein level in the right ventricle. The regulation of APJR, V1aR and V1bR expression in the heart and the retroperitoneal adipose tissue were affected by both HF and HFD. Our study demonstrates that HF and HFD cause significant changes in the expression of APJR, V1aR and V1bR, which may have an important influence on the cardiovascular system and metabolism.

Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second common cause of cancer incidence and death amongEgyptian men. á-fetoprotein (AFP) may be elevated in many liver diseases and is not elevated in all patientswith HCC, So more sensitive serum markers are needed for HCC diagnosis. AFP glycoform measuring is moreimportant than measuring of AFP. There are three types of glycoforms, the most important one in diagnosis ofHCC is lens Culinaris agglutinin reactive 3 alpha fetoprotein (AFPL3), as it is generated from malignant livercells, its measurement helps to differentiate HCC from benign hepatic diseases. The aim of the present studywas to improve outcome of patients with HCC by early diagnosis, through detection of AFP L3 in patients withnormal level of AFP. This study included 82 patients divided into two groups: Group (A): 41 HCC patients withnormal Alpha fetoprotein level, Group (B): 41 HCC patients with high level of Alpha fetoprotein. Tri-phasic liverComputed Tomography (CT) is a standardized procedure for the detection and characterization of HCC.Measurement of Human AFP-L3 by ELISA in serum by the kit (AFPL3 EIAab®, Catalog No: E1117h). Resultsshowed that out of 82 patients 18 patients were females and 64 were males with mean age 63.5years old. AFPL3 at cutoff 2.89 had sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 87.8%, AUC=0.515 and accuracy of 93.2% accordingto this cutoff 95% of patients with AFP <30 ng/mL had AFP L3 =2.89 versus 5% of patients with AFP <30 ng/mLhad AFP L3 >2.89, while 100% of patients with AFP >30 ng/mL had AFP L3 >2.89 versus 0% of patients withAFP >30 ng/mL had AFP L3 =2.89, this indicates that AFP L3 is a good diagnostic marker for HCC when AFPlevel is more than 30 ng/ml. Conclusion: There is a significant direct correlation between AFP level and AFPL3level in patients with HCC. AFP L3 is a good diagnostic marker for HCC only when AFP level is more than 30ng/ml.
Key words: HCC · Alpha fetoprotein · Alpha fetoprotein L3

Proposed EUTOS-T Prognostic Score Evaluation in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia and its Predictive Value

Posted by A Youssef, M Elsorady, M Ayad, et al. on 2019-11-11 01:44:00

Context

EUTOS score is the prognostic score validated in the TKI era. This score can be influenced by many factors, especially in developing countries, like parasitic infestations, viral infections and allergic reactions. Refinement of this score is a need with the emergence of more potent TKIs and for better recognition of high-risk patients.

Objective
The main objective of this study is to see whether the replacement of the basophil percentage with serum tryptase as a marker of basophil cell mass may change the predictive power of this score.

Design
This observational study included newly diagnosed CML patients in the period from October 2016 to April 2017. Those patients were followed up till the reporting date in April 2019.

Setting
Patients were recruited from the Alexandria university hospital as a terminal referral center.

Patients
The 48 included patients were newly diagnosed chronic phase CML patients excluding accelerated phase and blastic crisis. The female to male ratio was 1:1 with the mean age at presentation 43.94 years. Nineteen age and sex match individuals were included as a control group for tryptase. Patients who completed the follow up were 100% and 2 patients died during the follow up.

Interventions
Serum tryptase was measured for patients and controls using quantitative sandwich ELISA technique (EIAab kit catalog no: E1070h, China). Then the prognostic scores Sokal, Hasford and EUTOS were calculated adding to this the proposed score EUTOS-T replacing the basophil percentage with the serum tryptase. The follow up was done at 3-month intervals measuring the BCR/ABL-1 transcripts and the results were correlated to the baseline scores.

Results
The results showed that EUTOS score had lower sensitivity and specificity of defining the high-risk group at the cut-off value of 87 suggesting the higher splenic measurements and basophilia in the studied group; however this score showed better sensitivity and specificity (86.67% and 84.85% respectively) at a cut-off value of 154. EUTOS-T score showed higher sensitivity of 93.33% and a negative predictive value of 95.7%. Besides, the correlation between the molecular failure at 12 months was the strongest with EUTOS-T giving p-value <0.001.

Conclusion
Using EUTOS-T score resulted in better prediction of molecular progression and shorter overall survival of high-risk patients that leads to better choice of the frontline treatment regimens.

Keywords
CML, chronic myelogenous leukemia, tryptase, EUTOS, prediction, TKI

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