The reduced expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 in the kidneys of animal models and patients with diabetes suggests ACE2 involvement in diabetic nephrology. To explore the renoprotective effects of ACE2 overexpression, ACE inhibition (ACEI) or both on diabetic nephropathy and the potential mechanisms involved, 50 Wistar rats were randomly divided into a normal group that received an injection of sodium citrate buffer and a diabetic model group that received an injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin. Eight wks after streptozotocin injection, the diabetic rats were divided into no treatment group, adenoviral (Ad)-ACE2 group, Ad–green flurescent protein (GFP) group, ACEI group receiving benazepril and Ad-ACE2 + ACEI group. Four wks after treatment, physical, biochemical, and renal functional and morphological parameters were measured. An experiment in cultured glomerular mesangial cells was performed to examine the effects of ACE2 on cellular proliferation, oxidative stress and collagen IV synthesis. In comparison with the Ad-GFP group, the Ad-ACE2 group exhibited reduced systolic blood pressure, urinary albumin excretion, creatinine clearance, glomeruli sclerosis index and renal malondialdehyde level; downregulated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and collagen IV protein expression; and increased renal superoxide dismutase activity. Ad-ACE2 and ACEI had similar effects, whereas combined use of Ad-ACE2 and ACEI offered no additional benefits. ACE2 transfection attenuated angiotensin (Ang) II–induced glomerular mesangial cell proliferation, oxidative stress and collagen IV protein synthesis. In conclusion, ACE2 exerts a renoprotective effect similar to that of ACEI treatment. Decreased renal Ang II, increased renal Ang-(1–7) levels, and inhibited oxidative stress were the possible mechanisms involved.
Cisplatin is an effective anti-cancer drug; however, its clinical use is usually associated with nephrotoxicity as a dose-limiting side effect. Several molecular mechanisms have been found to be involved in this nephrotoxicity such as oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to explore the potential nephroprotective effect of cardamonin, a flavone found in Alpinia plant, in a rat model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The possible mechanisms underlying this nephroprotective effect were investigated. Cardamonin was given at two different doses; 10 and 30 mg/kg orally for two weeks, starting one week before giving a single nephrotoxic dose of cisplatin (7 mg/kg). Acute nephrtoxicity was evident by significantly increased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Also, cisplatin increased lipid peroxidation and depleted reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase. Additionally, cisplatin showed a marked pro-inflammatory response as evidenced by significant increase in tissue levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, NF-kB, iNOS, ICAM-1 and MCP-1. Pre-treatment with cardamonin significantly attenuated the nephrotoxic effects, oxidative stress and inflammation induced by cisplatin, in a dose-dependent manner. Also, cardamonin decreased caspase-3 expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as compared to cisplatin group. Besides, cradamonin reversed cisplatin-induced decrease in EGF. Furthermore, up-regulation of NOX-1 was found to be involved in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and its expression was significantly reduced by cardamonin. Histopathological examination further confirmed the nephroprotective effect of cardamonin. Moreover, pre-treatment with subtoxic concentration of cardamonin has significantly enhanced cisplatin cytotoxic activity in four different human cancer cell lines; hela, hepG2, PC3 and HCT116 cancer cell lines. In conclusion, these findings suggest that cardamonin improves therapeutic index of cisplatin and that NOX-1 is partially involved in the pathogenesis of cispaltin-induced nephrotoxicity.
High phosphate intake is known to aggravate renal osteodystrophy along various pathogenetic pathways. Recent studies have raised the possibility that dysregulation of the osteocyte Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is also involved in chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related bone disease. We investigated the role of dietary phosphate and its possible interaction with this pathway in an experimental model of adynamic bone disease (ABD) in association with CKD and hypoparathyroidism. Partial nephrectomy (Nx) and total parathyroidectomy (PTx) were performed in male Wistar rats. Control rats with normal kidney and parathyroid function underwent sham operations. Rats were divided into three groups and underwent pair-feeding for 8 weeks with diets containing either 0.6% or 1.2% phosphate: sham 0.6%, Nx+PTx 0.6%, and Nx+PTx 1.2%. In the two Nx+PTx groups, serum creatinine increased and blood ionized calcium decreased compared with sham control group. They also presented hyperphosphatemia and reduced serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels. Fractional urinary excretion of phosphate increased in Nx+PTx 1.2% rats despite lower PTH and FGF23 levels than in sham group. These biochemical changes were accompanied by a decrease in bone formation rates. The Nx+PTx 1.2% group had lower bone volume (BV/TV), higher osteoblast and osteocyte apoptosis, and higher SOST and Dickkopf-1 gene expression than the Nx+PTx 0.6% group. Nx+PTx 0.6% rat had very low serum sclerostin levels, and Nx+PTx 1.2% had intermediate sclerostin levels compared with sham group. Finally, there was a negative correlation between BV/TV and serum sclerostin. These results suggest that high dietary phosphate intake decreases bone volume in an experimental model of CKD-ABD, possibly via changes in SOST expression through a PTH-independent mechanism. These findings could have relevance for the clinical setting of CKD-ABD in patients who low turnover bone disease might be attenuated by optimal control of phosphate intake and/or absorption.
Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-related vascular disorder which is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. We sought to identify novel serological protein markers to diagnose PE with a multi-’omics’ based discovery approach.
Seven previous placental expression studies were combined for a multiplex analysis, and in parallel, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was performed to compare serum proteomes in PE and control subjects. The combined biomarker candidates were validated with available ELISA assays using gestational age-matched PE (n=32) and control (n=32) samples. With the validated biomarkers, a genetic algorithm was then used to construct and optimize biomarker panels in PE assessment.
In addition to the previously identified biomarkers, the angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFlt-1) and placental growth factor (PIGF)), we found 3 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated biomakers in PE sera. Two optimal biomarker panels were developed for early and late onset PE assessment, respectively.
Both early and late onset PE diagnostic panels, constructed with our PE biomarkers, were superior over sFlt-1/PIGF ratio in PE discrimination. The functional significance of these PE biomarkers and their associated pathways were analyzed which may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PE.
2D gel (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis); LCMS; Multiplex analysis; Preeclampsia; Proteomic profile
Objectives. To investigate the relationship between plasma resistin, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and insulin resistance (IR). To compare the mRNA level of resistin in mononuclear cells and monocyte-derived macrophages in women with PCOS and controls.
Materials and methods. Patients with PCOS and controls were enrolled and IR was considered as the stratified factor for subgroups. Fasting blood was collected to determine the levels of sex hormones, insulin, glucose, blood lipid, and resistin. Resistin gene expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in mononuclear cells and monocyte-derived macrophages cultured with or without rosiglitazone for 96 h.
Results. No significant difference of plasma resistin levels was found among PCOS-IR, PCOS-non-IR, control-IR, and control-non-IR groups. There were no significant differences in resistin mRNA expression between participants with and without PCOS and with and without IR. Resistin mRNA expression in monocyte-derived macrophages was higher than that in mononuclear cells (p?=?0.04), and could be reduced by rosiglitazone (p?<?0.001).
Conclusions. Plasma resistin does not correlate with normal weight PCOS or IR. Resistin gene expression in mononuclear cells and monocyte-derived macrophages in PCOS and IR is the same as controls. Further researches on the role of resistin in the pathogenesis of PCOS or IR should concentrate on the tissue level.