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Abstract

Current therapeutic approaches of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are symptomatic and of modest efficacy, and there is no available effective cure or prevention of AD; hence, the need arise to search for neuroprotective agents to combat AD. The current study aimed at investigating the neuroprotective effect of nanodiamond (ND), adamantine-based nanoparticles, in aluminum-induced cognitive impairment in rats, an experimental model of AD. AD was induced by aluminum chloride (17 mg/kg, p.o. for 6 weeks) and confirmed by Morris water maze and Y-maze behavioral tests. Biochemical and histological analyses of the hippocampus were also performed. Aluminum-treated rats showed behavioral, biochemical, and histological changes similar to those associated with AD. ND improved learning and memory and reversed histological alterations. At the molecular levels, ND mitigated the increase of hippocampal beta-amyloid (Aβ42) and beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1) together with down-regulation of phosphorylated tau protein. It also modulated the excitatory glutamate neurotransmitter level. Furthermore, ND boosted the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and mitochondrial transcription factor-A (TFAM), suppressed the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and curbed oxidative stress by hampering of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Moreover, ND augmented the hippocampal levels of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (p-STAT3) and B cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) anti-apoptotic protein while diminished nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and caspase-3 (casp-3) expression. These findings indicate the protective effect of ND against memory deficits and AD-like pathological aberrations probably via modulating NF-kB and STAT3 signaling, effects mediated likely by modulating N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors.

Tributyltin in male mice disrupts glucose homeostasis as well as recovery after exposure: mechanism analysis

Posted by Bingshui L, Jiaojiao G, Zhihui X, et al. on 2017-07-24 19:17:56

Abstract

Organotin compounds such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin can induce diabetes and insulin resistance. However, the development of diabetes caused by organotins and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, male KM mice were orally administered with TBT (0.5, 5, and 50 μg/kg) once every 3 days for 45 days. Their body weights increased and reached a significant difference compared to the control, and the fasting blood glucose levels were significantly elevated. The fasting levels of serum insulin and adiponectin increased, while glucagon levels decreased in the animals treated with TBT. The expression of the insulin receptor (IR) signaling cascade, including IR, IR substrate, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, and glucose transporter 4, was inhibited both in the skeletal muscle and the liver, which might be a main reason for the hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. After removing the TBT stress for 60 days, the animals which had received exposure to TBT could recover normoglycemia, accompanied with a recovery of the suppressed IR signal pathway and fasting insulin levels. However, the fasting levels of serum adiponectin and glucagon were lower than that of the control mice, which would remain a potential risk inducing the disruption of glucose homeostasis.

Quercetin and tin protoporphyrin attenuate hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury: role of HO-1

Posted by Yara A, Hassan M. E, Yousra A, et al. on 2017-07-24 01:44:52

Abstract

Ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury occurs in many clinical situations such as organ transplantation and hepatectomies resulting in oxidative stress and immune activation. Heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) is the rate-limiting step in the heme-degradation pathway and has a critical cytoprotective role. Induction of HO-1 improves liver I/R injury. Quercetin, a plant pigment (flavonoid), is an antioxidant and HO-1 inducer. Tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) is a HO-1 inhibitor. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of quercetin in hepatic I/R injury and the role of HO-1. Wister rats were randomly divided into four groups (sham, I/R, quercetin, and SnPP). Liver ischemia was induced for 45 min then reperfusion was allowed for 1 h. Quercetin and surprisingly SnPP ameliorate the deleterious effect of I/R by reducing the oxidative stress and hepatocyte degeneration. Both agents decreased the elevated inflammatory cytokines and improved the inhibition of the antiapoptotic marker, Bcl2. They induced HO-1 content and expression. Quercetin has better cytoprotective effect than SnPP. These findings suggest that quercetin has a hepatoprotective effect against I/R injury via HO-1 induction and unexpectedly, SnPP showed the similar effect. Quercetin has more prominent protective effect than SnPP because of its superior ability to induce HO-1.

Serum Hepcidin as a Diagnostic Marker of Severe Iron Overload in Beta-thalassemia Major

Posted by Ahmed Maher K, Amina A, Marwa Salah F, et al. on 2017-07-24 00:17:19

Abstract

Objectives

To investigate potential usefulness of serum hepcidin in the diagnosis of iron overload in children with β-thalassemia.

Methods

A study was conducted on 30 thalassemia major (TM), 30 thalassemia intermedia (TI) and 60 healthy children as controls. Serum hepcidin was measured by Human Hepcidin, ELISA Kit.

Results

β-thalassemia patients had a higher serum hepcidin compared to the controls (p < 0.001). TM group had higher hepcidin and ferritin compared to the TI group (p = 0.034; < 0.001, respectively). Among controls, hepcidin did not correlate with age (r = 0.225, p = 0.084). Among β-thalassemia patients, it correlated positively with age (r = 0.4; p = 0.001), disease duration (r = 0.5; p < 0.001), transfusion frequency (r = 0.35; p = 0.007), total number of transfusions (r = 0.4; p = 0.003), and ferritin (r = 0.3; p = 0.027). Total hemoglobin and serum ferritin were significantly related to hepcidin, which tended to increase by 0.514 ng/ml with each 1 g/dl rise in hemoglobin (p = 0.023) and by 0.002 ng/ml with each 1 ng/ml rise in serum ferritin (p = 0.002). Iron overload [serum ferritin (SF) ≥ 1500 ng/ml] was independently associated with TM (p = 0.001) and elevated serum hepcidin (p = 0.02). The overall predictability of serum hepcidin in severe iron overload was statistically significant when compared to hepcidin to serum ferritin ratio.

Conclusions

Serum hepcidin is elevated in children with β-thalassemia; but this elevation is more evident in TM patients with severe iron overload. Thus, hepcidin can be a potential marker of severe iron overload in patients with TM. Further studies are recommended to compare serum hepcidin and serum ferritin in the prediction of severe iron overload in steady state and during infection or inflammation.

Keywords

Hepcidin Iron overload β-thalassemia major β-thalassemia intermedia

The potential curative effect of rebamipide in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury

Posted by Abdallah M.G, Dalaal M.A, Hanan S.E. on 2017-07-24 00:58:45

Abstract

Rebamipide (Reba), a gastroprotective drug, has signified its hepatoprotective activity; however, its possible post-therapeutic intervention in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) remains elusive. Consequently, the intent of this study was to test Reba modulatory effect on nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling in hepatic I/R model. Rats were randomized into sham, I/R, Reba 60, and Reba100 (60 and 100 mg/kg, respectively) groups. Ischemia was induced for 30 min followed by 3-day reperfusion to set up a model of partial (70%) warm hepatic ischemia. Post-treatment with Reba reduced the serum level of alanine transaminase, improved histopathological alterations of the liver, and elevated hepatic adenosine triphosphate. It also lowered hepatic lipid peroxides and increased both total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide. Besides, Reba decreased tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, myeloperoxidase, prostaglandin E2, cyclooxygenase-2 expression/content, and caspase-3 activity. Reba also upregulated the gene expression/content of sirtuin 1 (SIRT-1), while it downregulated that of high mobility group box (HMGB)1 and reduced the expression/content of NF-κB p65/pS536-NF-κB and the content of pT180/Y182-p38MAPK. Reba provided tenable hepato-therapeutic mechanisms to mitigate events concomitant with hepatic I/R via inhibition of NF-κB p65 and modulation of its influential signals (SIRT-1, HMGB1, p38MAPK) associated with its antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and antiapoptotic impacts.

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