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Albumin absorbed by renal tubular epithelial cells induces inflammation and plays a key role in promoting diabetic kidney disease (DKD) progression. Macrophages are prominent inflammatory cells in the kidney, and their role there is dependent on their phenotypes. However, whether albuminuria influences macrophage phenotypes and underlying mechanisms during the development of DKD is still unclear. We found that M1 macrophage-related markers were increased in diabetes mellitus (DM) mouse renal tissues with the development of DKD, and coculture of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from human serum albumin (HSA)-induced HK-2 cells with macrophages induced macrophage M1 polarization in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Through a bioinformatic analysis, miR-199a-5p was selected and found to be increased in EVs from HSA-induced HK-2 cells and in urinary EVs from DM patients with macroalbuminuria. Tail-vein injection of DM mice with EVs from HSA-induced HK-2 cells induced kidney macrophage M1 polarization and accelerated the progression of DKD through miR-199a-5p. miR-199a-5p exerted its effect by targeting Klotho, and Klotho induced macrophage M2 polarization through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway both in vivo and in vitro. In summary, miR-199a-5p from HSA-stimulated HK-2 cell-derived EVs induces M1 polarization by targeting the Klotho/TLR4 pathway and further accelerates the progression of DKD.


This study aims to investigate the impact of ACE (rs4343) and AT1R (rs 5182) genetic polymorphisms on the outcome of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients on captopril. Two hundred and fifty participants with ACS were included in this study (Group 1 (120) participants on captopril 25?mg twice daily and Group 2 (130) participants received no captopril (control study)). Participants were genotyped for ACE (rs4343) and AT1R (rs5182) polymorphisms and the phenotype was determined. ACE polymorphism (rs 4343) GG and GA genotypes are more related to STEMI (OR?=?1.7, 1.5 respectively) and NSTEMI (OR?=?3, 3.8 respectively), and they were more prone to have Percutaneous Coronary Intervention after ACS attack (OR?=?11.6, 14.1 respectively).

AT1R (rs 5182) CT genotype is mildly associated with STEMI (OR?=?1.1), but also prone to have PCI after ACS attack (OR?=?1.6) while TT genotype has a risk to get less improvement (OR?=?1.8).


Macrophages infiltrated in adipose tissue play a key role in obesity. Some traditional pharmaceutical compounds may shift the polarization of recruited macrophages to improve metabolic homeostasis. TanshinoneⅡA (TAN2A) is a major active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza, a traditional anti-inflammatory cardiovascular medicine. In our study, we firstly constructed a phenanthroimidazole derivative of TAN2A named TAN20 by chemical synthesis, then identified its structure by chromatography and hydrogen spectroscopy, and finally examined its effects on immunometabolic responses. We found that TAN20 significantly induced the alternatively-activated (M2) rather than the classically-activated macrophages (M1), mainly through releasing the type II cytokines. Such effects were more pronounced than that from TAN2A. Compared to TAN2A, TAN20 substantially reduced body weight, decreased serum free fatty acid and HOMA-IR, and increased insulin sensitivity in obesity-induced diabetic mice. These effects of TAN20 were further validated on diabetic cynomolgus monkeys, which are closer to human physiological conditions. Taken together, our findings explicitly showed that TAN20 significantly polarized the macrophage and improved metabolic homeostasis in obesity-induced diabetic models, suggesting that TAN20 may be a potential drug against diabetes and obesity.


It is still an open question as to whether or not aseptic injuries affect the generation of fever due to exogenous pyrogens including bacterial products. Therefore, in the present paper we have investigated the course of endotoxin fever in rats induced with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; given intraperitoneally in a dose of 50?μg/kg) 48?h after subcutaneous administration of turpentine oil (TRP; 0.1?mL per rat) that causes aseptic necrosis of tissues. We found that febrile response was significantly augmented in the animals pre-treated with turpentine compared to control rats (pre-treated with saline), and that observed excessive elevation of body temperature (Tb) was accompanied by enhanced release of fever mediators: interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) into plasma. Moreover, we found that sensitization to pyrogenic effects of lipopolysaccharide was associated with the increase in plasma level of high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), one of the best-known damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMP), which was recently discovered as inflammatory mediator. Since the injection of anti-HMGB1 antibodies weakened observed hyperpyrexia in the animals pre-treated with turpentine, we conclude that HMGB1 is a plasma-derived factor released in the course of aseptic injury that enhances pyrogenic effects of LPS.

Partial remission and early stages of pediatric type 1 diabetes display immunoregulatory changes. A pilot study

Posted by A Villalba, M Fonolleda, M Murillo, et al. on 2019-06-26 19:14:00


Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic metabolic disease of unknown etiology that results from β-cell destruction. The onset of the disease, which arises after a long asymptomatic period of autoimmune attack, may be followed by a relapsing and remitting progression, a phenomenon that is most evident during the partial remission phase (PR). This stage lasts for a few months, shows minor requirements of exogenous insulin and could be explained by a recovery of immunological tolerance. This study aims to identify new biomarkers at early stages of pediatric T1D that reflect immunoregulatory changes. To that end, pediatric patients with T1D (n?=?52) and age-related control subjects (n?=?30) were recruited. Immune response-related molecules and lymphocyte subsets were determined starting at T1D onset and until the second year of progression. Results showed that circulating TGF-β levels decreased during PR, and that betatrophin concentration was increased in all the considered stages without differing among studied checkpoints. Moreover, an increase of regulatory T, B and NK subsets was found during T1D progression, probably reflecting an attempt to restore self-tolerance. By contrast, a reduction in monocyte levels was observed at the early stages of diabetes. The results reveal significant changes in immunological parameters during the different early stages of T1D in children, which could ultimately serve as potential biomarkers to characterize the progression of T1D.

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