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Abstract

Over the past decade, the Clp protease complex has been identified as being implicated in plastid protein quality control in plant cells. CLPC1 and CLPC2 proteins form the chaperone subunits of the Clp protease complex and unfold protein substrates to thread them into the ClpP complex. Here, using the technique of virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), we suppressed both Nicotiana benthamiana ClpC1 and ClpC2 (NbClpC1/C2) functioning as chaperone subunits in the protease complex. Co-suppression of NbClpC1/C2 caused chlorosis and retarded-growth phenotype with no seed formation and significantly reduced root length. We found that co-suppression of NbClpC1/C2 also affected stomata and trichome formation and vascular bundle differentiation and patterning. Analysis of phytohormones revealed significant alteration and imbalance of major hormones in the leaves of NbClpC1/C2 co-suppressed plant. We also found that application of gibberellin (GA3) partially rescued the developmental defects. Co-suppression of NbClpC1/C2 significantly affected the development of N. benthamiana and exogenous application of GA3 partially rescued the developmental defects. Overall, our findings demonstrate that CLPC1 and CLPC2 proteins have a pivotal role in plant growth and development.

Abstract

Background
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSC) are non-haematopoietic, fibroblast-like multipotent progenitor cells. They have the potential for trilineage (adipocyte, chondrocyte and osteocyte) differentiation as well as differentiation into endocrine pancreatic progenitors. In diabetic or cancer therapy, somatostatin (SST) expression plays a vital role. Small molecules such as valproic acid (VPA) and micronutrients like vitamin D3 have differentiation potential in ADMSC. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of vitamin D3 machinery and its metabolic enzymes in ADMSC. Furthermore, the reprogramming effect of vitamin D3 and VPA was evaluated on somatostatin expression in pancreatic lineage differentiation.

Methods
ADMSC were characterised based on their cell surface marker profile using flow cytometry. Specific adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation protocols were used in this study. Gene expression of several pluripotent, endodermal, pancreatic progenitor and pancreatic endocrine lineage markers were investigated in native ADMSC and after stimulation with different concentration of vitamin D3 for five consecutive days (0, 50, 100, 150 nM) and VPA (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 mM) by real-time PCR. Furthermore, somatostatin expression was confirmed with ELISA and immunocytochemistry.

Results
In ADMSC, the expression of somatostatin mRNA, the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and its metabolising enzymes 1 α-Hydroxylase, 24-Hydroxylase and 25-Hydroxylase were detected. Upon stimulation with vitamin D3, nuclear translocation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) was observed. Interestingly, the presence of vitamin D3 reduced the transcription of the somatostatin gene. By contrast, VPA treatment of cultivated ADMSC showed enhancing effect on somatostatin gene expression. No other pluripotent, endodermal, pancreatic progenitor or pancreatic endocrine lineage mRNA expression was modulated under the influence of vitamin D3 and VPA.

Conclusion
Human ADMSC carry the VDR. The vitamin D metabolising enzyme 25-Hydroxylase responded to the addition of vitamin D3. Moreover, our results demonstrate that somatostatin expression in ADMSC is constitutive, partially secreted and regulated by vitamin D3 and VPA.

Keywords
Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells Somatostatin expression

Abstract

Background
Autologous platelet concentrates are currently widely used across different areas of regenerative medicine in order to enhance the wound healing process. Although several protocols for platelet concentrates are available, their application remains difficult due to different protocols leading to distinct products with vary potential biological uses. In this study, we attempted to make a platelet patch (PP) using mixtures of platelet rich plasma (PRP) injection and platelet rich fibrin (PRF) to promote wound repair and regeneration.

Results
Experiments were performed using a full-thickness wound model in mini-pigs. Autologous PRP, PRF and PP were prepared immediately before creating four full-thickness skin wounds in pigs. We quantified concentrations of platelets, thrombin and various growth factors to ensure that the desired effect can be produced. After surgery, hydrocolloid dressing, PRP injection, PRF and PP was applied to experimentally induced wounds. Application efficacy was evaluated by measurement of wound sizes and histological examination. The results indicated that all wounds showed a significant size reduction. Wound repair efficacy in response to PP treatment exhibited enhanced re-epithelialization compared to PRP and PRF (P < 0.05) and higher wound contraction than did PRF application (P < 0.05). Another aspect, experiment using DsRed transgenic pigs as blood donors demonstrated that leucocytes in PP were incorporated into the wound bed at the end of the study, suggesting that leucocytes activity is stimulated in response to PP application. Safety of the experimental processes was also confirmed by examination of organ biopsies.

Conclusions
We used a mini-pig model to evaluate the efficacy of lab-made PP on induced full-thickness wound healing. Results demonstrated that application of one piece of PP was enough to obtain comparable efficacy versus general utilization of PRP or PRF for wound care. We also demonstrated that leucocytes in PP were incorporated into the wound bed and no safety concerns have been found in the whole experiment. This study provides a novel and feasible method for veterinary or clinical wound care.

Keywords
Platelet concentrate Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) Platelet-poor plasma (PPP) Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) Platelet patch (PP) Full-thickness wound

Abstract

Background
Cilastatin (CL) is an inhibitor of dehydropeptidase-I, which is safely used in clinical practice to prevent nephrotoxicity of antibiotics. Tacrolimus (TAC) is the most important immunosuppressant in renal transplantation, but it causes considerable nephrotoxicity. We evaluated the protective effects of CL against chronic TAC-induced nephropathy.

Methods
Chronic nephropathy was induced by administering TAC (1.5 mg/kg/ day, subcutaneous injection) to rats on a low-salt diet for 4 weeks. CL (75 or 150 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal injection) was concomitantly treated with TAC. Human proximal tubular cells were exposed to TAC (50 μg/mL) with or without CL (250 μg/mL). We investigated the effects of CL on TAC-induced injury in terms of renal function, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and inflammation. The effects of CL on oxidative stress and apoptosis were evaluated in both in vivo and in vitro models of TAC nephrotoxicity.

Results
CL treatment improved TAC-induced renal dysfunction and decreased renal interstitial fibrosis (reduced expression of e-cadherin and TGFβ-1) and interstitial inflammation (decreased infiltration of ED-1-positive and osteopontin-positive cells). Compared to TAC treatment alone, CL co-treatment reduced oxidative stress (serum 8-OHdG level and immunoreactivity of 8-OHdG and 4-HHE in renal tissue) and increased renal expression of anti-oxidant enzyme, manganese superoxide dismutase. CL treatment decreased apoptotic cell death (decreased TUNEL-positive cells and reduced expression of active caspase-3) in TAC-treated kidney. In vitro CL treatment prevented tubular cell death from TAC treatment and decreased number of annexin V-positive cells were observed in cilastatin-cotreated cells.

Conclusion
CL has protective effects against chronic TAC-induced nephrotoxicity owing to its anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties.

Keywords
Cilastatin Tacrolimus Nephrotoxicity

Abstract

Background
With the aim of preparing a more effective, safe and economical vaccine for tuberculosis, inhalable live mycobacterium formulations were evaluated.

Methods
Alginate particles in the size range of 2–4 μm were prepared by encapsulating live Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) and “Mycobacterium indicus pranii” (MIP). These particles were characterized for their size, stability and release profile. Mice were immunized with liquid aerosol or dry powder aerosol (DPA) alginate encapsulated mycobacterium particles and their in-vitro recall response and infection with mycobacterium H37Rv were investigated.

Results
It was found that the DPA of alginate encapsulated mycobacterium particles invoked superior immune response and provided higher protection in mice than the liquid aerosol. The BCG encapsulated in alginate particles (BEAP) and MIP encapsulated in alginate particles (MEAP) were engulfed by bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs) and co-localized with lysosome. The MEAP/BEAP activated BMDCs exhibited higher chemotaxis movement and had enhanced ability of antigen presentation to T cells.

The in-vitro recall response of BEAP/MEAP immunized mice when compared in terms of proliferation index and Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) released by splenocytes and mediastinal lymph node cells was found to be higher than mice immunized by liquid aerosol of BCG/MIP. Finally, different groups of immunized mice were infected with M. tb H37Rv and after 16 weeks the Colony forming units (CFUs) in lung and spleen estimated. The bacilli burden in the BEAP/MEAP immunized mice was significantly less than the respective liquid aerosol immunized mice and the histopathology of BEAP/MEAP immunized mice lungs showed very little damage.

Conclusions
These inhale-able vaccines formulation of alginate coated live mycobacterium are more immunogenic as compared to the aerosol of bacilli and they provide better protection in mice when infected with H37Rv.

Keywords
Tuberculosis Vaccine BCG Aerosol immunization Alginate coated mycobacterium

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