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Origin and Evolution of Mitochondria

Posted by star on 2019-05-23 01:36:19

Overwhelming molecular evidence has established that eukaryotes acquired mitochondria when an alpha-proteobacterium became an endosymbiont. Modern-day alpha-proteobacteriainclude pathogenic Rickettsias. When the two formerly independent cells established a stable, endosymbiotic relationship, the Bacterium contributed molecular machinery for ATP synthesis by oxidative phosphorylation. The host cell might have supplied organic substrates to fuel ATP synthesis. Together, they had a reliable energy supply for processes such as biosynthesis, regulation of the internal ionic environment, and cellular motility. Given that some primitive eukaryotes lack full-fledged mitochondria, the singular event that created mitochondria was believed to have occurred well after eukaryotes branched from prokaryotes.

An alternative idea is that the recipient of theα- proteobacterium was an archaean cell rather than a eukaryote. If so, this union could have created not only the mitochondrion but also the first eukaryote! This parsimonious hypothesis is consistent with some but not all of the available data, so it is currently impossible to rule out other scenarios.

The mitochondrial progenitor brought along its own genome and biosynthetic machinery, but over many years of evolution, most bacterial genes either moved to the host cell nucleus or were lost. Like their bacterial ancestors, mitochondria are enclosed by two membranes, with the inner membrane equipped for synthesis of ATP. Mitochondria maintain a few genes for mitochondrial components and the capacity to synthesize proteins. Nuclear genes encode most mitochondrial proteins, which are synthesized in the cytoplasm and imported into the organelle. The transfer of bacterial genes to the nucleus sealed the dependence of the organelle on its eukaryotic host.

Even though acquisition of mitochondria might have been the earliest event in eukaryotic evolution, some eukaryotes lack fully functional mitoc......

Antibiotics reduced symptoms of alzheimer in mice

Posted by star on 2019-05-22 19:48:06

Researchers at the university of California have shown that the type of bacteria living in the gut can influence the development of alzheimer's symptoms in mice. Studies have shown that long-term antibiotic treatment can slow the growth of amyloid plaques in the brains of mice by altering their gut microbiota to reduce inflammation.
The bacterial community that lives in the gastrointestinal tract -- the intestinal microbiome is usually harmless, but because it affects the activity of the body's immune system, these bacteria can affect a wide range of diseases, such as the brain.
Professor Sangram s. Sisodia, director of the centre for molecular neurobiology at the university of California, explains: "recent evidence suggests that gut bacteria may play an important role in a variety of neurological diseases, including Parkinson's and alzheimer's."
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the formation of amyloid plaques and the activation of microglia, the immune cells present in the brain. These cells may help clear amyloid plaques, but their activation may also exacerbate the disease by causing neuroinflammation.
The gut microbiota of alzheimer's patients has changed, and Sisodia and his colleagues have previously reported that gut bacteria may affect the development of these symptoms in rodents.Long-term antibiotic treatment limited the formation of amyloid plaques and reduced microglial cell activation in mice expressing mutant proteins associated with familial alzheimer's disease.

To show that the improvement in alzheimer's symptoms was caused by changes in the gut microbiota, the researchers transplanted untreated mouse feces into animals treated with antibiotics. This process restores the intestinal microbiota and leads to the formation of amyloid plaques and increa......

Anatomic Tests

Posted by star on 2019-05-22 01:40:57

No biological process can be understood without knowledge of where the components are located in the cell. Often, cellular localization of a newly discovered molecule provides the first clue about its function, this accounts for why cell biologists put so much effort into localizing molecules in cells. Cell fractionation, fluorescent antibody staining, and expression of GFP fusion proteins are all valuable approaches, illustrated by numerous examples in this book. For more detailed localization,
antibodies can be adsorbed to small gold beads and used to label fixed specimens for electron microscopy. GFP fusion proteins are particularly valuable because of the ease of their construction and expression and because they can be used to monitor both the behavior and dynamics of molecules within living cells. However, it should always be kept in mind that attaching GFP may affect either the localization or function of the protein being tested. Demonstration that a GFP fusion protein is fully functional, that is, that it can replicate the parent protein's biochemical and biophysical properties, can be done only by genetic replacement of the native protein with the GFP fusion protein. This is routinely done in yeast but rarely for vertebrate proteins, as the required genetics are difficult or impossible. Instead, correct function is inferred from the fusion protein exhibiting morphologic, biochemical, and biophysical properties similar to those of the native protein. This is better than nothing but is incorporates an element of wishful thinking.

The use of GFP fusions to study cell dynamics has yielded many surprises, as structures that were thought to be inert have turned out to be remarkably dynamic. One powerful technique is to photobleach the GFP fusion protein in one part of the cell and t......

EIAab Science Lands in Hubei "Four Boards"

Posted by star on 2019-05-16 19:25:35

EIAab Science Inc, Wuhan held a grand ringing ceremony in Wuhan Equity Custody Trading Center at 9am on May 14th of 2019 and the stock is referred to as EIAab ( Listing code: 103129 ) .

The Chairman Li Xuebin, general manager Wang Kai of EIAab Science Inc, Wuhan, the marketing director of Wuhan Equity Custody Trading Center He Miao, the vice President Fang Yingding of Hubei Capital Markets College Executive, the transaction Manager of Wuhan Equity Custody Trading Center Di Jin and others related witnessed this important moment.

Wuhan city is an important node city of the national “One Belt One Road” development strategy, an important industrial base and a research and education base of the country; among them, high-tech industries, automobile industry and trade circulation industry played an important role in the country. In 2017, the implementation of the “Millions of University Students Stay in Wuhan from Entrepreneurship and Employment Project” by the Municipal Party Committee and Municipal Government supplemented new force in economic and social development of Wuhan City, and made the development of Wuhan real economy flourish.

The Marketing Director of Wuhan Equity Custody Trading Center He Miao launched a speech

The marketing director of Wuhan Equity Custody Trading Center He Miao launched a speech that in recent years, all districts of Wuhan responded to ......

New cancer immunotherapy is expected to be used in clinical practice

Posted by star on 2019-05-16 18:43:58

In 2018, the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine was awarded to two scientists for their pioneering work in the field of cancer immunotherapy for their contributions to the development of this revolutionary cancer treatment.
The mechanism of cancer immunotherapy is well understood. In the body's immune system, t-lymphocytes can attack cancer cells. But T cells have inhibitory receptors that inhibit T cell activity. Cancer cells are acutely aware of this, secreting substances that bind to these receptors and bind T cells. Immunotherapy, on the other hand, unlocks these bonds, allowing T cells to resume their ability to attack cancer cells.
As a revolutionary anti-cancer treatment, immunotherapy has two properties: on the one hand, the immune system has a "memory" for cancer. Once it works, it works for the long term. Some patients who received treatment did not relapse for nearly a decade, which is clinically equivalent to "cure". On the other hand, immunotherapy is not a panacea. According to statistics, only about 10% of patients can get long-term benefits from immunotherapy. So scientists and drug developers are developing new immunotherapies to benefit patients. Unfortunately, new drugs are not easy to develop. Several promising new drugs have failed in clinical trials. But that has not stopped innovation. A new combination of immunotherapies has emerged. The key behind this treatment is a receptor molecule called NKG2A, which is expressed in large amounts on the surface of T cells and NK cells, and the binding of NKG2A to ligands inhibits the function of T cells and NK cells. This is similar to the immune cell "brake" we mentioned above. Similarly, if NKG2A binding to ligand can be inhibited, it is expected to release the activity of immune cells. The researchers did an in vitro experiment first. They found that both NKG2A antibody and pd-l1 antibody alone increased the activity of immune cells. And both use together, can have apparent more outsta......

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